Saturday, 8 April 2017

Environmental practical on Respirable dust sampler envirotech APM 460BL


Respirable dust sampler envirotech APM 460BL
The APM 460 sampler uses an improved cyclone with sharper cut off (D50 at 10 microns) to separate the coarser particulates from the air stream before filtering it on the glass microfibre filter. By using the APM 460, measurement of Respirable Particulate Matter can be done accurately and TSPM can also be assessed by collection of dust retained in the cyclone cup.
The particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere from various source is one of the air pollution. It is collected through the filter paper with the help of vacuum cleaner type motion fitted on high volume sampler. Stock’s low offers the basic approach to collection by this technique.
Special features:
  •     Brush-less blower reduces equipment downtime and maintenance effort.
  •         Provision of light for flow and time reading during night.
  •        Toolbox within the instrument.
  •         Lockable casters, top cover and gaseous attachment.
  •     Improved cabinet design which is more sturdy and durable with SS hardware.
  •          Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to TVs totally eliminated.


Procedure:
  1.  Check the filter paper for irregularities.
  2. Pat the no. & dissociate the filter paper for 24 hrs
  3. Weight the paper up to 1 mg accuracy without folding. Record the weight & number of filter paper as w1.
  4.  Open the roof of HVS, loosen the wing nuts & put the filter paper below the faceplate.
  5. Fasten the wing nuts & close the shelters roof.
  6.  Set the on-off timer to start sampling for prescribed time, recording the initial time.
  7. Maintain the required initial flow rate with the help of flow control device.
  8. After 5 minutes record the initial flow rate’ At the end of sampling period, record thee length of sampling period, flow rate (final).
  9.  Remove the face-plate and filter paper do not touch the collected surface of paper.
  10. Fold the paper lengthwise & place in folder.
  11. Weight the filter paper as w2.
  12.  Field data be collected by metrological observation.


DIGRAM:
                                   



                             





As per the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) the standard specified concentration of SPM is known in Hg/m³.

Thursday, 6 April 2017

Seminar: Concrete Cloth


INTRODUCTION
Every construction needs an enormous amount of economical investments and about 60% of the cost is owned by material. Worldwide there is increasing demand for construction and construction materials, for that concrete is the most extensively used material in construction. These days concrete is being used for so many purposes in many different adverse conditions. There are many advantages of concrete, but there is one drawback is that, it is not flexible, when it is hardened. To overcome this drawback of concrete, advances and researches are made each day out of which the one important material technique evolved is concrete made as a canvas, A new construction material is in evolution called Concrete Canvas.

This material has a wide range of applications throughout the building and civil engineering industry. In the engineering properties of the material (concrete canvas) is also discussed. This material being ceramic, fire resistant and water proof in nature.
Concrete Cloth


What Is Concrete Canvas?

Concrete Canvas is a flexible, concrete impregnated fabric that hardens when hydrated to form a thin, durable, water proof and fire resistant concrete layer. CC allows concrete construction without the need for plant or mixing equipment. Simply position the cloth and just add water.


Applications of Concrete Cloth
1.     Ditch lining:
Concrete Canvas can be rapidly unrolled to form ditch or tank lining. It is significantly quicker and less expensive to install than conventional concrete ditch lining and requires no specialist plant equipment. The 30 m ditch shown below was lined in 45 min. Traditionally, the most common renovations were to replace smaller canals with pipelines and line larger canals with concrete, Fipps said. But lining canals with concrete is expensive and requires significant upkeep.
Ditch lining


It is rapidly becoming the ditch lining material of choice for engineers and contractors around the world. Concrete Cloth is typically 10 times faster to install than conventional concrete solutions, with installation speeds of up to 200 sqm/hr. possible with only a 3-man crew for a longitudinal layup.it provides a ditch lining solution which is fast, easy and cost effective to install.

2.      Slope Protection:
Landslides can be triggered by many often-concomitant causes. In addition to shallow erosion or reduction of shear strength caused by seasonal rainfall, causes triggered by anthropic activities such as adding excessive weight above the slope, digging at mid-slope or at the foot of the slope, can also be included.
concert cloth can be used as slope stabilization and other erosion control applications such as temporary and permanent slope protection, retaining walls, boulder fences, low level bunds and river bank and dam revetments.
                                                
Slope Protection.
                                                                                    
3.     Pipeline Protection:
Concrete Canvas can be used as a coating for overland or underwater pipeline protection, providing a superior tough rock shield. In remote areas, it can be used to coat steel pipe on site without expensive wet concrete application plants.it will set underwater and provide negative-buoyancy.
Pipeline protection.


.     Ground Resurfacing:
Concrete cloth can be secured with ground anchors to rapidly create a concrete surface for flooring, pedestrian walkways or dust suppression. CC8 and CC13 have been tested to EN 1991-1-1:2002 (Resistance to Imposed Loads on Vehicle Traffic Areas)
Repairing existing concrete infrastructure can prove costly, difficult and time-consuming, typically requiring the removal and replacement of existing concrete which is extremely difficult, requires heavy plant and a large site team.

5.     Mining Applications:
Concrete cloth can be used as an alternative to poured or sprayed concrete or as a quick way of erecting strong permanent or temporary blast and vent structures and spall lining. it has been successfully tried in Mpumalanga, South Africa.
It can be used as an alternative to brattice cloth, plaster board or concrete block-work to construct blast and vent wall structures for underground mining applications. Trials have shown that CC typically provides cost savings of over 20% compared to conventional solutions.
Mining Application.

                                                                             
                                                                                   
                                               
6.     Bund Lining:
Earth containment bunds can be quickly lined with Concrete Cloth to provide an efficient, chemically resistant alternative to concrete walling. Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall designed to prevent inundation or breaches from a known source. It is a secondary containment system commonly used to protect environments from spills where chemicals are stored.
Bund lining

                                                                                     

7.     Gabion Reinforcement / Capping:
Gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, and military applications. For erosion control, caged rip rap is used. For dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect artillery crews from enemy fire.
concrete cloth can be used to cap or repair gabion walls to provide long-term protection and prevent FOD (Foreign Object Damage). Covering gabions with concrete cloths also prevents water ingress which can cause slump, whilst protecting the ego-textile membrane from the effects of UV degradation. H.Dust suppres.

8.     Dust suppression system in helipad:
Dust Suppression was developed as a result of in-theater feedback, for use as a dust suppression surface around Helicopter Landing Sites. Benefits include: speed of installation, durability, and good coverage will conform to the underlying ground conditions.
Dust suppression

Advantages of concrete canvas
  • Rapid-the material can be hydrated by either spraying it or fully immersing it in water. Once hydrated, it remains workable for 2 hours and hardens to 80% of its final strength within 24 hours.
  • Easy to use-dry Concrete Canvas can be cut or tailored using simple hand tools such as utility knives. The PVC side can be supplied with an adhesive backing and the fibrous side bonds well to concrete or brick surfaces when set. It can be easily repaired or upgraded using existing cement products.
  • Flexible-Concrete Canvas can be easily nailed through before setting. It has good drape characteristics, allowing it to take the shape of complex surfaces including those with double curvature.
  • Strong-the fiber reinforcement acts to prevent cracking, absorbs energy from impacts, and provides a stable failure mode.
  •  Fireproof-Concrete Canvas is a ceramic-based material and will not burn.
  • Waterproof-the PVC backing on one surface ensures that Concrete Canvas is completely waterproof;
  • ·Adaptable-Concrete Canvas is currently supplied on 1.2 m (4 ft.) wide rolls but can be      manufactured with a roll width of up to 5 m (16.4 ft.). The cloth can be produced in a range of thicknesses from 5 to 20 mm (0.2 to 0.8 in.) 
  • Durable-Concrete Canvas is chemically resistant and will not degrade in ultraviolet light.
  •  Concrete cloth is a low mass, low carbon technology which uses up to 95% less material than conventional concrete for many applications. It has minimal impact on the local ecology due to its limited alkaline reserve and very low wash rate.
  •  Environmentally Friendly.


Conclusion
Concrete Canvas (CC) is a unique proprietary material. It is a time & material saving technique. It is very easy to place & handle. Concrete cloth is a flexible; cement impregnated fabric that hardens when hydrated to form a thin, durable, water & fire proof concrete layer. Concrete Canvas allows concrete construction without the need for plant or mixing equipment. Simply position the canvas & just add water. Concrete Canvas has a design life of 10 years and is significantly quicker and less expensive to install compared to conventional concrete. It is specially used, where the workmanship is very difficult. It is specially used in emergency works such as in military.



           
                 

Friday, 17 March 2017

PDF to DOC Converter


This is a free online PDF to DOC converter allows you to save a PDF file as an editable document in Microsoft Word DOC format, ensuring better quality than many other converters.


There are 2 steps to convert :

  • Click the UPLOAD FILES button & select up to 20 PDF files you wish to convert. Wait for the conversion process to finish.
  • Download the results either file by file or click the DOWNLOAD ALL button to get them all at once in ZIP archive.



The website is given for PDF CONVERTER is http://pdf2doc.com/ 
 
    

Monday, 13 March 2017

Diploma Project: Developed Water-less Urinal Cartridge



INTRODUCTION            
 Water saving is being necessary in India as well as other countries to avoid wastage of water & increase ground water table for better future. 
              Therefore here specified reducing water consumption at root zone level as an objective. Urinals being the prime area of interest. Studied & designed an economical model of waterless urinal cartridge to suit the Indian market base.


WATERLESS URINALS BENEFIT & PITFALLS TO SOCIETY
Waterless urinals are a good and cost effective solution for most, but not all, sites. The choice of waterless urinal is key because whilst all types of waterless urinals will obviously save the same amount of water, they have different implementation and running costs.

The 3 main reasons why Gent works clients choose to use waterless urinals are:
  • To reduce overall expenditure, spending less than if flushed urinals were maintained or fitted.
  • To help meet environmental goals by reducing water usage and, by implication, the site's carbon footprint.
  • To improve reliability and resilience.
                     Waterless urinals can indeed provide these benefits, and do so for most sites where they are deployed. 

ADVANTAGE
 •Save enormous quantities of fresh water Regulations
Enhance efficiencies of sewer lines and wastewater treatment plants
Optimize cost of plumbing accessories at supply & consumption ends
Conserve electricity used for pumping water & treating wastewater
Replace chemical fertilizers with urine to grow crop.
Produce fertilizer & other chemicals from urine
Recover hydrogen for producing energy and fuel
Reduce emission of green house gases and pollution of water bodies.

CONCLUSION
The objective of developing a low cost waterless urinal cartridge was successfully achieved.
The cartridge successfully eliminates Odour by obstructing back flow of ammonia from the mains.
The displacement cartridge counteracts the choking hazards of typical suspended particles like 
tobacco & chewing gum shreds up to 5 mm.
It's totally a fit and forget type product which has least expenditure on maintenance due to its
simplicity in designing.